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Which of the following are true regarding the physiology of the fetus
Which of the following are true for the neonate in the first few minutes of life
The indications for endotracheal intubation in newborns include:
A 35-week preterm female infant is now 4 hours old and self-ventilating in air. She was born via emergency caesarean section for breech position after preterm labour. On delivery she was pink centrally and crying actively, with good tone and heart rate and respiratory rates within expected norms, the birth weight was 2600 g.
In the last hour the baby has had four episodes where she stopped breathing for >20 seconds, her heart rate dropping to <80 beats per minute and her oxygen saturations to <70%. She requires firm stimulation by the nursing staff to resolve these episodes. When you examine her, her oxygen saturations on pulse oximetry are 96% and her examination is normal. Which one of the following options is the most appropriate next step in the management of her apnoea?
With regard to an infant born through meconium stained amniotic fluid:
a. All infants born through meconium should immediately be intubated and deep tracheal suctioning should be done
b. Only non-vigourous infants born through meconium should be intubated and deep tracheal suctioning commenced
c. Immediately after delivery, the initiation of ventilation and oxygen is the first priority, tracheal suctioning/intubation ca be carried out later if needed
d. Intubation might be necessary to maintain a patent airway and provide positive pressure ventilation at some point in the patient interaction.
An infant is considered “non-viable” when the following conditions are met:
a. Infant is born on or before 27 weeks gestation
b. Infant is born on or before 22 and 6 days weeks gestation
c. An infant is a “still born” (after at least 26 weeks with no signs of life)
d. When the mother is not sure what the gestational age of the infant is
Which of the following are true for an infant with suspected sepsis?
An infant is brought to the NICU with a temperature of 35.6°C, which of the following statements are true for the neonate:
Match the correct medication doses to the patient described:
1.8kg infant with blood sugar of 0.5mmol/l
Match the correct medications to the patient described below”:
3.8 kg 3 day old infant who is dehydrated and lethargic, with a blood glucose of 1.4mmol/l, and heart rate of 90b/min
Match the medications to the patient described below:
2.4kg bradycardic (30b/min) infant who is unresponsive to chest compressions
A spontaneously breathing infant presents in the NICU after delivery, the infant presents with some respiratory distress, increased work of breathing, decreased SPO2 (89% on supplementary oxygen). What would the best option for management of this patient’s immediate symptoms be?
The following is true with regard to ventilation of the neonate who needs resuscitation:
With regard to oxygen use in the neonate:
With regard to chest compressions in the neonate:
You are assessing and treating a term neonate who has been apnoeic and pulseless with a rhythm of asystole for the last 15 minutes, despite good CPR by a highly qualified NICU team. Which of the following are correct with regard to this patient?
With regard to airway management:
Premature neonates may present unique challenges during resuscitation because of:
An infant who needs a fluid bolus should be given:
A neonate with a blood sugar reading of 2.4mmol/l should be treated as follows:
An infant born to a mother who is an opioid addicted and appears floppy and cyanosed, the best management for this patient will be:
Choose the correct options for ensuring that there is alveolar ventilation
An infant in the ED has just been intubated by the doctor on duty, the team are not sure that the ETT is in the correct space, there is not good air entry over the chest, although the doctor is sure he saw the tube pass through the cords. What is the best option for management if the ETT cannot be immediately confirmed to be in the trachea?